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Belief in Qadaa´ and Qadar

One must believe that Allah knew everything before it came into being, and what will happen to it afterwards. He then brought them into existence, all in accordance to His Knowledge and Measure. Allah says:

"Verily, We have created all things with Qadar." (54:49)

Everything which occurred in the past that is occurring in the present and what will occur in the future is known to Allah before it came into existence. Allah then brought it into being, all in accordance to His Will and Measure. The Messenger of Allah said:

“A person is not a Muslim until he believes in Qadar, its good and its evil consequences – until he knows that whatever happened to him would have never missed him, and what missed him would never have occurred.” (Tirmidthi #2144)

The belief in Qadar means to believe in four things:

  1. To believe that Allah is well acquainted with everything taking place and His knowledge encompasses everything.

  2. To believe that Allah has pre-assigned the portions of everything in the ‘Preserved Tablet’ (Al-Lawh-ul-Mahfoodh). The Prophet said:

    “The first thing which Allah created was the Pen, and He said to it, ‘Write.’ It responded, ‘What should I write?’ He said, ‘Write everything that will occur until the Day of Resurrection.’ (Abu Dawood 4700 & Timidhi #3319)

  3. Nothing takes place in the heavens or on the earth without the will of Allah and His wish; whatever Allah wills, takes place, and whatever He does not, will not take place.

  4. Allah, the Exalted, is the Creator of all things. There is no other creator besides Him, nor is there a Lord other than He… This belief does not contradict the fact that one must strive to attain things. To clarify this, if a person wants a child he must do certain things to achieve this goal; such as getting married. After he does all that is in his power, he may be granted what he wishes or not. The reason for this, is that a person would realize that what he does to achieve his goal is not in fact the true cause behind it; rather it is the Will of Allah. These ‘means’ to fulfill our goals are also considered from the Qadar of Allah. The Prophet was asked:

    ‘O Messenger of Allah, do the verses and supplications we recite and the medicine we take to cure ourselves waive the Qadar of Allah?’ [He replied,] ‘They are from the Qadar of Allah.’ (Mustadrak al-Haakim, but with a weak chain).

The Merits of Belief in Qadaa´ and Qadar

  1. One strengthens his dependence upon Allah [in achieving results] after fulfilling their means.

  2. One becomes pleased with whatever results, which in turn produces peace of heart and spiritual comfort. Allah says:

    "No evil befalls on the earth nor in your own souls, but it is in a book before We bring it into existence; surely that is easy to Allah: So that you may not grieve for what has escaped you, nor be exultant at what He has given you; and Allah does not love any arrogant boaster." (57:22-23)

  3. It eases the effects of calamities. The Prophet said:

    “The strong believer is better and more beloved to Allah than a weak believer, and in each one there is good. Be keen to do what benefits you and seek Allah's help, and do not be neglectful in doing so. And if any mishap befalls you, do not say, ‘If only I had only done such and such,’ but rather say, ‘This is the Qadar of Allah, and whatever He Wills He does (Qadarullaah wa maa shaa fa‘al),’ for indeed, ‘if,’ opens the door for Shaytaan’s works.” (Muslim #2664)

  4. It increases one’s reward and effaces his sins. The Prophet said:

    “No Muslims is fatigued, is stricken with illness, feels stress, worry, sadness, or harm, not even a thorn which pricks him, except that Allah forgives sins through it.” (Bukhari #5318)

Belief in Qadar is not, as some mistakenly think, a call to put one's trust in Allah without striving or fulfilling the means, for the Messenger of Allah replied to a person who asked him:

‘Should I leave my camel untied and trust in Allah?’ He said, ‘Tie it and trust in Allah.” (Tirmidhi #2517)