Belief in Qada'a and Qadar
Qada'a and Qadar is to believe that Allah knew everything before it came into being, and what will happen to it afterward. He then brought them into existence, all in accordance to His perfect knowledge and measure. Allah (y) says: Verily, We have created all things with Qadar.[54:49]
Everything which occurred in the past, that which is occurring in the present and what will occur in the future is known to Allah before it came into existence. Allah then brought it into being, all in accordance to His Will and Measure. The Messenger of Allah (y) said: “A person is not a Muslim until he believes in Qadar, its good and its evil consequences – until he knows that whatever happened to him would have never missed him, and what did not happen to him would never have occurred.” [Tirmidhi]
This belief does not contradict the fact that one must strive to attain things. To clarify this, if a person wants a child he must do certain things to achieve this goal; such as getting married. After he does all that is in his power, he may be granted what he wishes or not. The reason for this, is that a person would realize that what he does to achieve his goal is not in fact the true cause behind it; rather it is the Will of Allah. These ‘means’ to fulfill our goals are also considered from the Qadar of Allah. The Prophet (s) was asked: ‘O Messenger of Allah, do the verses and supplications we recite and the medicine we take to cure ourselves waive the Qadar of Allah (y)?’ (He replied,) ‘They are themselves from the Qadar of Allah.’ [Mustadrak al-Haakim]
One must, fulfill whatever means are possible to achieve his goal, for the means are also a part of Qadaa' and Qadr. One becomes pleased with the results (whatever they may be), which in turn produces peace of heart and spiritual comfort. There is no room for stress, worry, or sadness. It is known that stress and unrest of heart leads to many sicknesses. Having belief in this concept prevents and cures many of these sicknesses. Allah (y) says: No evil befalls on the earth nor in your own souls, but it is in a book before We bring it into existence; surely that is easy for Allah: So that you may not grieve for what has escaped you, nor be exultant at what He has given you; and Allah does not love any arrogant boaster. [57:22-23]
It encourages knowledge and exploration of what Allah created in this universe. Afflictions, such as disease, drive humans to seek their cure, and this is done by searching for the sources of medicine which Allah, the Exalted, created in this universe.
It eases the effects of calamities faced by humans and eliminates the feeling of regret about what has already passed. If someone loses money in a business, this is considered a hardship. If this hardship was followed by the feeling of remorse and sorrow, it would result in two hardships: the hardship of the financial loss and the hardship of feeling remorse and sorrow. If one believes in the Divine Measure of Qadaa' and Qadr, he would be pleased with what has occurred, because he knows that it was inevitable. The Prophet (s) said: Be keen to do what benefits you and seek help in Allah, and do not be neglectful in doing so. And if any mishap befalls you, do not say, ‘If only I had only done such and such,’ but rather say, ‘This is the Qadar of Allah, and whatever He Wills He does’, for indeed (the saying of) ‘if’ opens the door for the Devil.” [Muslim]
It increases one’s dependence upon Allah and removes fear of the creation. Ibn ‘Abbaas (d) said “I was behind the Messenger of Allah (s) one day and he (s) said to me: ‘O young boy, I will teach you some words: Guard Allah’s commandments and he will guard you. Guard Allah’s commandments, you will find Him in front of you. And If you ask, then ask Allah, and if you seek help, then seek help in Allah and know that if the whole world was to gather to help you, they would never be able to help you except with something which Allah has already written for you. If the whole world was to gather to bring you some harm, they would not be able to harm you except with something which Allah has already written for you. The pens have been lifted, and the scrolls have dried’.” [Tirmidhi]
Belief in Qadar is not, as some mistakenly think, a call to put one's trust in Allah without striving or fulfilling the means, for the Messenger of Allah (y) replied to a person who asked him: ‘Should I leave my camel untied and trust in Allah (that it will be here when I get back)?’ He said, ‘Tie it and then put your trust in Allah.” [Ibn Hibbaan] He also said: “By Him in Whose Hands is my soul, that one of you goes and chops wood, ties it, and carries it on his back is better than for him to go and beg people, whether they give him money or not.” [Bukhari]
The Merits of Belief in Qadaa´ and Qadar
- One strengthens his dependence upon Allah (in achieving results) after fulfilling their means.
- One becomes pleased with whatever results are realized, which in turn produces peace of heart and spiritual comfort. Allah (y) says: No disaster strikes upon the earth or among yourselves except that it is in a register before We bring it into being – indeed that, for Allah, is easy. So that you may not grieve for what has escaped you, nor be exultant at what He has given you; and Allah does not love any arrogant boaster. [57:22-23]
- It eases the effects of calamities. The Prophet (s) said: “The strong believer is better and more beloved to Allah than a weak believer, and in each one there is good. Be keen to do what benefits you and seek Allah's help, and do not be neglectful in doing so. And if any mishap befalls you, do not say, ‘If only I had only done such and such,’ but rather say, ‘This is the Qadar of Allah, and whatever He Wills He does (Qadarullaah wa maa shaa fa‘al),’ for indeed, ‘if,’ opens the door for the Devil.” (Muslim #2664)
- It increases one’s reward and effaces his sins. The Prophet (s) said: “No Muslims is fatigued, is stricken with illness, feels stress, worry, sadness, or harm, not even a thorn which pricks him, except that Allah forgives sins through it.” (Bukhari #5318)